As with all medium chain triglycerides, the MCT powder portion of the product will largely be converted to ketones by the liver within a few short hours of consumption. MCT creates a readily supply of ketone production for the lier to use for ketones. The BHB-salt portion should simply be absorbed into the blood as ketones. The BHB supplies another source, which doesn’t require the liver to product ketones. There is no reason that the ketones produced by the product will affect the kidneys or liver any differently than ketones produced from exogenous fasts (such as when eating a ketogenic diet) or ketones produced from stored fats (such as when calorie restricting or losing weight). Exogenous ketone scientific literature does not suggest that either the kidney or liver functions are negatively affected by ketosis. The major roles of the kidneys, when it comes to ketones, is to excrete excess ketones into the urine. This excretion will likely be highest during the first few days of keto-adaption ( either in eating the keto diet or consuming KETO//OS), but the body will retain more and the tissues will being to preferentially burn the ketones as consumption continues. The liver is the major site of endogenous ketone productions, so taking exogenous ketones with KETO//OS would provide another source besides the liver to make ketones. Remember, KETO?/OS and exogenous ketones are a source of calories; so be sure to consider it in your daily goals. KETO//OS and exogenous ketone supplementation is not hard on the liver.